M. M, Tracey, 2011. '154 Captain John Thomas Hynes, DSO, MM, Cross of Karageorge with Swords (Serbia) - An Australian Soldier'. The journal and proceedings of the Military Historical Society of Australia, Vol LII, September, No 3, pp 13-25.
'154 Captain John Thomas Hynes, DSO, MM, Cross of Karageorge with Swords (Serbia) - An Australian Soldier.
Dr Michael MacLellan Tracey
Tom Johnstone’s referral to Cornwell’s ‘readable series’ to soldiers rising through the ranks to battalion and alternative commands provides an interesting insight into the process of field promotion by serving members of the military forces. While certainly not referring to a ‘gutter-bred private soldier’ this research was prompted by Johnstone’s article and offers an example of an Australian solider from Queensland who rose through the ranks during the Great War. In order to establish a symbiotic relationship between this soldier and his historical era, it is necessary to briefly describe certain historical events in his civilian life and service during World War I (WWI). To contain the historical presence, place names are as they existed at the time of the events e.g. ‘Ari Burnu’ as Anzac Cove; Allied or Imperial forces as ANZACS. The term ‘ANZAC’ did not exist prior the abortive landing at Gallipoli.
The importance of historical ‘correctness’ is essential so that myths often interpreted from social or family heritage do not distort the historic continuum. As Lowenthal aptly states:
‘... heritage is not an inquiry into the past but a celebration of it, not an effort to know what actually happened but a profession of faith in a past tailored to present day purposes’.
John Thomas Hynes
John Thomas Hynes (1883-1928), fondly known as 'Captain Jack', was the son of Michael Hynes from Broadford, County Clare, Ireland. Michael Hynes immigrated to Australia where he married Anne Smith from Fenniscourt, County Carlow, in St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church Gympie, Queensland in 1871. John Thomas was born in the mining township of Herberton, North Queensland on 11 March 1883, the seventh of nine children. He grew to be a quiet, retiring man to the point of shyness and was a devout Roman Catholic throughout his life. 
Hynes continued the family tradition of working in the mining industry and eventually this led him to the Queensland goldfield of Charters Towers around 1908. While in Charters Towers he learnt the discipline of land surveying and the associations he developed during this time were to influence his life during and following his military service. He lived with his family at Plant Street until 1911 when he followed the economic boom in copper mining firstly to the settlement of New Charleston (later renamed Forsayth) in the Etheridge district, and later to Selwyn south of Cloncurry. He was thirty years of age and unmarried when he volunteered and enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) at Townsville. On 26 September 1914, he was inducted into the Infantry, 2nd Expeditionary Force with the rank of Private.
John T. Hynes while working in the mining industry Charters Towers, Queensland.
Formation of 15th Battalion
The 15th Battalion AIF was raised on 15 August 1914 immediately following the onset of WWI. The AIF (Light Horse) and the infantry division were placed under the command of General William Bridges (1861-1915). Bridges was later commissioned to Major General Sir William Throsby Bridges KCB, CMG, and became the first Australian to attain the rank of General. Unfortunately he was also the first Australian General to be killed at Gallipoli on 18 May 1915. Command of 15th Battalion was transferred to Lieutenant General William Riddell Birdwood (1865-1951). Birdwood, later promoted to Field Marshal, was confirmed as commander of the AIF on 14 September 1916.
Colonel John Monash (1865-1931) [later General Sir] commanded the 4th Brigade that comprised the 13th Battalion of infantry from the New South Wales, the 14th from Victoria, the 15th from Queensland and Tasmania and the 16th from South Australia and Western Australia. The 15th Battalion comprised primarily of volunteers from Queensland and as part of the 4th Brigade, embarked from Western Australia bound for Egypt in December 1914.
Following enlistment in 1914 Hynes had been inducted into the armed forces from Enoggera Army Camp on 16 October. On the completion of initial training he embarked with the 15th Battalion from Melbourne on 22 December 1914 aboard the 18,480 ton His Majesty’s Australian Transport (HMAT) Ceramic bound for Egypt. As the ‘SS Ceramic’, the ship was built, launched and commissioned in 1913 by Harland and Wolff, Belfast, and began service for the White Star Line’s Australian service. From 1914 until 9 July 1917, the vessel was leased by the Commonwealth of Australia as a troop transport under the wartime designation ‘A40’.
Troops boarding HMAT [SS] Ceramic A40 in Port Melbourne, 1915.
The 4th Brigade
The 4th Brigade became part of the New Zealand and Australian Division and entered the hostilities and participated in the landings at Gallipoli in the late afternoon of 25 April 1915. Members of the 15th Battalion served with distinction in this theatre until the eventual retreat in December 1915. During this time the 4th Brigade fought on the Western Front.
Following the withdrawal from Gallipoli the 15th Battalion was reorganised while in Egypt. The Battalion was divided providing experienced soldiers for the 47th Battalion. Hynes remained with the 15th Battalion and was promoted to Corporal on 19 October 1915. The following day, 20 October 1915, he was promoted to Sergeant. As part of the expansion of the Australian contingent the 4th Australian Division was formed from the 4th Brigade with elements from the 12th and 13th Brigades. During June 1916 and until 1918, the Battalion endured the torturous trench warfare in France with the Division’s first major action at Pozieres in August 1916. During this offensive, and lacking the promised armoured support from the British, the Brigade attacked resilient German positions suffering heavy losses at Bullecourt in April 1917. The remainder of that year the 15th fought in Belgium confronting the Hindenburg Line and assisted halt the German spring offensive in 1918. The Battalion participated in the fighting near Amiens on 8 August 1918 continuing operations until late September. On 11 November 1918 fighting ceased and the Germans capitulated. Members of the AIF began returning to Australia for demobilisation, finally discharged to return to civilian life.
By November 1918 Hynes had been commissioned as Captain. In a Christmas card sent to family members Hynes signature reads ‘from Capt. Jno Hynes.’
15th Battalion Christmas Postcard sent to nieces and nephews by John Thomas Hynes from France 1918. 
The history of the ill-fated landings at Gallipoli is well known and the plight and following heroism of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps forces well established. However, the attitude of the English offers towards the Colonial troops is often overlooked. The rancid opinion and misunderstanding of the enemy by the higher command is well expressed in Gilbert’s publication ‘Churchill; A Life’ where he states:
So convinced was Kitchener that the Turks would abandon the Gallipoli Peninsula under the impact of naval gunnery alone that when Asquith asked him whether Australian and New Zealand troops ‘were good enough’ for such an important operation of war, he replied that ‘they were quite good enough if a cruise in the Sea of Marmara’ was all that was contemplated’. 
The Australians and New Zealanders fought gallantly, often with considerable individual heroism. However, times were changing. The allied commanders had little experience of the emerging methods of modern warfare and underestimated the strength and tactics of the Turkish army. There existed a lack of cooperation and coordination between the Navy, Army, and in particular, the services of the artillery corps. The Turks proved a far more formidable enemy than that envisaged by the British command. The invading allied forces were contained on the beaches of Gallipoli, casualties mounted and the expedition was a failure. Churchill was held immediately responsible for the disaster.
Private Hynes, an inaugural member of the 15th Battalion, A Company, was appointed as Stretcher Bearer. He was later to be cited for his service in this rank and position:
He was the stretcher bearer and recommended for good work at Quinns Post, but did not receive an award.
Among those who were rescued by Hynes during this action were the seriously wounded Private Thomas Henry ‘Swinger’ Ellery and Lance-Corporal Alex ‘Scotty’ Wright, D.C.M., both of Charters Towers. Wright was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for ‘repeated instances of gallantry when acting as a scout and guide to his unit' on the night of 2nd May 1915 during operations near Kaba Tepe.
The Australians and New Zealanders were to assault, occupy and consolidate Quinn's Post following the initial landing at Ari Burnu on 25 April 1915. This was part of their attempt to take Baby 700, an escarpment of approximately 590 feet (180 metres) on the Sari Bair Range. It was a principal objective of the AIF during the initial dawn landing. Within a few hours the area was occupied by elements of the 11th and 12th Battalions. Turkish soldiers had been defending the beach and were withdrawing up Sari Bair Range. British maps provided to the troops, that included the objective Baby 700, failed to illustrate the strategic importance or to reveal the nature of the undulating terrain along the escarpment. As a result the troops were caught in treacherous ravines, steep gullies and unmapped open ridges with the Turks on the high ground firing down on them. Many Australians and New Zealanders were killed or wounded. The Turks held the heights and by dusk had forced the allied forces to retreat to the lower spurs of the escarpment.
The Turks forced the Australians and New Zealanders, despite assistance from the Auckland Infantry Battalion, to retreat to form a line of posts clinging to the cliff-edges along the Second Ridge. By dusk the near exhausted troops had been driven off the hill. The Australians eventually took Quinn’s Post and it became a most advanced and dangerous position due to incessant Turkish bombardment. Barely 50 feet (15 metres) separated the Commonwealth and Turkish troops, and accordingly, many of the bloodiest contacts at Gallipoli occurred at this site.
The post was eventually named after Major Hugh Quinn who was also from Charters Towers. Quinn was killed on 29 May 1915 when leading a foray against the Turks trying to retake the hill. The Turks failed in an attack to repel the Anzacs back to the beach on 27 April 1915 and Monash ordered a second attack on Baby 700 on the night of 2 May. The attack was poorly prepared and coordinated with costly results. Turkish forces again repelled the assault and the Anzacs suffered heavily for no gain.
On 9 August 1915 Hynes was wounded being shot through the buttocks. Owing to the seriousness of his wounds he was evacuated aboard the Aquitania on 11 August to 3rd London General Hospital in England for medical treatment and recuperation. He rejoined his unit on 19 October 1915 on the island of Lemnos where the 15th Battalion had been resting following severe losses during the fighting for Hill 971 and Hill 60 in August that year.
The first troops were evacuated from Anzac Cove and Suvla Bay on 19 December 1915 and within 12 days, the entire allied contingent was withdrawn. Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (1853-1947) was Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the disastrous campaign against the Turks at Gallipoli. Hamilton predicted that should the Gallipoli campaign be aborted, half of the force would be casualties. Hamilton was undoubtedly made the scapegoat for the failure of the Gallipoli operation despite being hopelessly undermanned and experiencing formidable logistical difficulties.
Before the Gallipoli campaign commenced many military personnel considered the invasion plan risky and inadvisable. The failure prompted the conclusion of numerous careers including Hamilton’s and was also a setback for Winston Churchill (1874-1965) who had instigated the plan. The failure of the action at the Dardanelles did considerable harm to Churchill's reputation. Hamilton was recalled to London on 16 October 1915 ending his military career. He was replaced by General Sir Charles Carmichael Monro (1860-1929) who immediately recommended retreat and evacuation. Monro’s first Despatch concerned and instigated the withdrawal from Gallipoli and the establishment of an army at Salonika. He stated in the Despatch:
Since we could not hope to achieve any purpose by remaining on the Peninsula, the appalling cost to the nation involved in consequence of embarking on an Overseas Expedition with no base available for the rapid transit of stores, supplies and personnel, made it urgent that we should divert the troops locked up on the Peninsula to a more useful theatre. Since therefore I could see no military advantage in our continued occupation of positions on the Peninsula, I telegraphed to your Lordship that in my opinion the evacuation of the Peninsula should be taken in hand.
By December 1915 winter was prevailing and the first troops were withdrawn from Ari Burnu and Suvla Bay. The evacuation was the most successful operation of the campaign and was executed with minimal casualties. On 27 October 1916 it was announced that ‘154 Cpl. J. T. Hynes, Inf.,’ had been awarded the Military Medal for action at Gallipoli. An extract from 15th Battalion records states:
The Military Medal was awarded for bravery in battle on land to personnel below a commissioned rank serving in the British Army, Commonwealth countries and other services.
The Military Medal established on 25 March 1916 for non-commissioned ranks was the equivalent to the Military Cross as awarded to commissioned officers and Warrant Officers. In specific cases the Military Medal was awarded to Warrant Officers. Since 1993 the Military Cross has been awarded to all ranks.
A Fellow Officer
Lieutenant George Urquhart was also from Charters Towers. He was a sharebroker, a Member of the Charters Towers Stock Exchange and Secretary of the Civic Club Charters Towers in civilian life. Similar to younger boys raising their age in order to enlist, Urquhart misled his enlistment officer stating he was forty four years of age, born in Maryborough, Scotland on 27 February 1871. In fact he was fifty years and six months old, born on 3 February 1865. The ‘cut off’ age for enlistment was, at that time, fifty years of age.
Urquhart’s had considerable previous military experience. Following his public school education he served for six years in the 4th Volunteer Brigade Seaforth Highlanders attaining the rank of Acting Provost Sergeant. Urquhart also used this experience in military service to successfully apply for a commission on 4 November 1915. He survived the war although was relieved of service in early 1919, when during an operation for appendicitis, the doctors questioned his age. Urquhart was repatriated to Australia and returned to Charters Towers where he joined the accountancy firm of A. McCallum and Company in Bow Street. He died on 19 August 1949.
Gold was the primary economic interest of the Charters Towers Stock Exchange. Hynes was a miner and worked as a surveyor and would certainly have met Urquhart in the small township during his mining days. Their places of residence in Charter Towers were in close proximity to each other. George Urquhart did not participate in the Gallipoli campaign but joined the 15th Battalion in France. Also unlike Hynes, Urquhart’s commission was granted based upon prior military service whereas Hynes rose through the rank by appointment without application based upon past service. Both Hynes and Urquhart were recovering from wounds and fellow officers of 15th Battalion. Urquhart escorted Hynes when he was awarded the Military Medal. Lieutenant Urquhart wrote of Hynes in the Northern Miner in 1916:
Sgt Hynes in his present capacity is a very valuable member of the battalion and sets a high standard in the way he looks after the wants of the members of his company. He has not yet received any recognition for his meritorious service and gallant conduct.
Urquhart later states in reference to the award made on 27 October 1916:
Today he [Hynes] was decorated by General Birdwood with the Military Medal for good service at Suvla in Gallipoli in August 1915. I happened to be the officer detailed to escorted Hynes and two other men before General Birdwood. And had the privilege of listening to the General’s congratulations on the men’s conduct. Hynes is at present Sergt-Major of A Company, and has every confidence and respect of not only his own company officers, but of very officer in the battalion. There should further promotion for Hynes at no distant date …
Hynes was promoted to Company Quarter-Master Sergeant on 30 October 1916.
For ‘… consistent good work in France in 1916’ he was promoted to Company Sergeant Major, (CSM) and awarded the Cross of Karageorge, 2nd Class with Swords or, also now known as, the Serbian Silver Star. The Cross of Karageorge is a Serbian Royal Order and is a very rare award for an Australian soldier. The decoration was introduced in 1915 for acts of conspicuous bravery in the field by Non-Commissioned Officers and soldiers.
CSM John Thomas Hynes
Hynes was noted for gallant action during 1916 and was mentioned in dispatches. as:
He was the stretcher bearer and recommended for good work at Quinns Post, but did not receive an award. … He was again strongly recommended for gallant work on morning 8 August  during an attack in Abdel Rahman’ Bair when his battalion suffered abnormal casualties. He did valuable work during the attack and afterwards in the retirement he was noted for his courage & entire disregard for his own safety when bringing in wounded under fire and finally carried [in] on his back his Coy. Sgt. Major who was mortally wounded.
Hynes received his commission to the rank of Captain on 18 September 1918 and was recommended for the Military Cross. However, this recommendation was reconsidered and the award upgraded to the Distinguished Service Order (DSO). The Distinguished Service Order was instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in the London Gazette on 9 November. The award is a military decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries to recognise meritorious or distinguished service by officers during wartime and actual combat.
Captain Hynes showing his Military Medal, Distinguished Service Order and The Cross of Karageorge with Swords.
During World War I the DSO was afforded the rank of Major or higher. However, the honour was awarded to especially valorous junior officers. In 1918 Hynes held the commission of Captain. The awarding of the DSO to ‘Junior’ staff officers caused concern and resentment among officers in combat. From the 1 January 1917 field commanders could only recommend the DSO for those serving under fire and it was only awarded to soldiers ‘Mentioned in Despatches’. However, a number of junior officers were awarded the DSO. This award was an acknowledgement that the officer had narrowly missed out being awarded the Victoria Cross.
In March and April 1918, the battalion helped stop the German spring offensive. The battalion participated in the great allied offensive of 1918, fighting near Amiens on 8 August 1918. This advance by British and Commonwealth troops was considered the greatest success in a single day on the Western Front. General Henry Rawlinson, a Commander in the British army, commented that the Australian assault on Mont St Quentin as the ‘the greatest military achievement’ of WWI.
General Sir John Monash commanded the assault on Mont St Quentin from August 31 to 5 September 1918 and this action significantly added to shortening the duration the war.
Hynes participated in this battle and was mentioned in dispatches as follows:
During the operations near Jeancourt, north west of St. Quentin, on 18th September, 1918, he led his company with great skill and courage in the attack, gaining his objective at little cost. He captured about 150 prisoners, two field guns and numerous machine guns. He did fine work.
150 prisoners captured at Jeancourt on 18 September 1918.
The 15th Battalion continued operations until late September, and on 11 November 1918, the war to end all wars, ceased and the guns fell silent. Later in November, members of the AIF began to return home to Australia for demobilisation and discharge.
Five AIF Officers upon their return from WWI.
The group portrait of five AIF Officers was taken at the Federal Studio in Townville in 1919 to celebrate the return from action during the war. In the back row, left to right are Captain Robert Glasgow DSO, MC, 15th Battalion, Captain John Thomas Hynes DSO, MM, Cross of Karageorge (Serbia), 15th Battalion. In the front row are Major Charles Francis Duchatel MC, 5th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Captain Sydney Hubert Carroll MC, 13th Machine Gun Battalion and Captain William Montague Cory MC and Bar, who served with the 4th Machine Gun Battalion. 
A Mark of Respect
In 1987 the author was commissioned by the Monnaie de Paris, France, to design and sculpt a plaster for medallion to commemorate the service by Australian soldiers in France. The Director of the Australian Bicentennial Authority, James Kirk, made the following statement:
I was delighted to learn of your success … for the design and sculpting of the medallion to be struck by the French Mint to commemorate two hundred years of Franco-Australian friendship. International recognition of your work not only enhances the reputation of our artists overseas it also helps to create pride in ourselves as Australians. Pride in our achievements is the spirit of our Bicentenary.
Media Release from the Australian Bicentennial Authority, 7 September 1987, states:
More than 400 French and Australian artists were invited to enter their designs for the medallion … The French have long been considered the leaders in medallion design so this award offers considerable prestige to the Australian artist. 
The Franco-Australian friendship Medallion struck in 1988.
The medallion was stuck by the French Mint in limited editions of silver and bronze. Both silver and bronze medallions are on permanent display in the Amiens Museum. The design featured a typical Australian and French soldier saluting each other surrounded by a war cemetery. While the Australian soldier depicted on the medallion represents all Australian service men and women in both world wars, the sculpting of the Australian soldier was based upon the service of Captain John Thomas Hynes.
Captain Hynes was repatriated to Australia and returned to Cairns, Queensland.  He retired from the Defence Force, returned to his occupation as a miner and in 1919, was working on the copper field at Selwyn south of Cloncurry. During the post-war era he led a retiring life and little is known of his activities. He remained unmarried and died in the Randwick Military Hospital, now known as the the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney in 1928.
Michael Hynes, the nephew of John Thomas Hynes, stated that Hynes had visited South Africa. This may have been sometime during 1921-1922 or 1927. In these years Hynes is not noted on the Australian Electoral Roll. While in South Africa it is believed he worked as a surveyor. It is arguable that Hynes returned to Australia from South Africa with failing health from the onset of tuberculosis. He had received wounds to his back and chest and was said to have been gassed during the Somme offensive. The after-effects of gassing and chest wounds would have exacerbated tuberculosis. When Hynes was wounded in the buttocks in 1915, he was evacuated to England for medical treatment. It is unfortunate that while recuperating from wounds in London he contracted Syphilis during a liaison with a London prostitute. The presence in London of widespread venereal during World War I is an acknowledged fact. It is possible that contracting this disease led to his early demise and the fact that he remained unmarried. During the late nineteenth century clinical studies revealed the syphilitic origins of chronic cardiovascular disorders and damage to internal organs including the lungs. The details of the historical occurrence of Hynes’ sexually transmitted ailment are not meant to demean or dishonour him or any service person.
Military leaders and governments are known to ‘view with tolerant eyes the “camp followers” of the soldier during peace and war’. From earliest times to Napoleon, Montgomery and modern day warfare, it is far better to have a solider medically fit to fight than require constant medical treatment for social diseases. In that tradition, Montgomery established ‘Monty’s brothels’ run by garrison adjutants. In 1966, condoms and information on the location of brothels or prostitutes were made available to the soldiers while attending pre-leave parades.
In 1928 Hynes was admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital Randwick and described as a ‘war pensioner’. In 1915 the Prince of Wales Hospital had been seconded by the Australian Government and was known as the ‘Fourth Australian Repatriation Hospital’. The facility was used for the treatment and repatriation of wounded and disabled returned servicemen. In 1953 the facility was renamed Prince of Wales Hospital.
During 1928 Hynes health continued to decline and with his sister-in-law Mary Margaret Lyons-Hynes, her son Michael and family friend Sadie Moylen by his bedside, he passed away on 16 September 1928. He was forty five years of age. Having survived the rigours and horrors of World War I, his official cause of death was given as pulmonary tuberculoses, toxaemia, exhaustion and heart failure. Hynes was buried alongside his father, Michael Rochford Hynes (1844-1899) in the Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW. 
Captain John Tomas Hynes DSO, MM a simple Australian Soldier who rose through the ranks in a tumultuous war now lies in peace. ‘Honor [sic] to Whom Honor is Due’.[62
Bean, C., 1924. The Story of Anzac; Official history of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, Vol. 2, Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Billett, R. S., 2009. Mont St Quentin: A soldier’s battle, Rosenberg Publishing, Australia.
Black, J. (ed.) 2005. The seventy great battles of all time, Thames and Hudson, London, England.
Brandt, A, M., 1985. No magic bullet: a social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880, New York, Oxford University Press.
Brighton, T., 2008. Masters of Battle; Monty, Patton and Rommel at war, Penguin Books, London.
Broadbent, H., 2009. ‘Gallipoli’s first day; Turkish documents separating myth and reality’, Warfare, Andrew McDonald (ed.). Australian War Memorial, Canberra, ACT, pp. 44-47.
Carlyon, L.A. 2002. Gallipoli, Pan Macmillan, New York, USA.
Chataway, T. P., 1948. History of the 15th Battalion, Australian Imperial Forces; war 1914-1918, revised Paul Goldenstedt (ed.), William Brooks & Co., Brisbane, Qld.
Couvalis, G., and Simpson, C., 2000. ‘Anzac heritage or Anzac history: Truth or fiction?’ Alternative Law Journal, AGIS 00/4136, Volume 25, No 4, August, pp. 165-68/184.
Cross, R., 2008. In memoriam, remembering the Great War: In association with the Imperial War Museum, Ebury Press, London, England.
Harris, J. P., 2008. Douglas Haig and the first world war, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jeffery, K., 2010. MI6: The history of the Secret Intelligence Service 1909-19I6, Bloomsbury, England.
Johnstone, T., 2009. 'Military heroes - fact and fiction,' Sabretache, Vol. L, No 3, September, The Military Historical Society of Australia, Canberra, ACT, p.10.
King, J., 2008. The Western Front diaries: The ANZACs ‘own story battle by battle, Simon and Schuster, Australia.
Lawrence, J., 2001. Pictorial History of Randwick, Kingsclear Books, Alexandria, NSW.
Lowenthal, D., 1998. The heritage crusade and the spoils of history, Cambridge University Press, England, p. 6.
McKernan, M., 2006. The strength of a nation: Six years of Australians fighting for the nation and defending the homefront in WWII, Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest, Australia.
Neefs, H., 2004. ‘The introduction of diagnostic and treatment innovations for syphilis in postwar VD policy’, Dynamis, Medical and Science History, No 24, pp. 93-118.
Pegram, A., 2009. ‘The arms of black melancholy: Australian prisoners captured on the Western Front in April 197 were subjected to brutal German treatment’, Warfare, Andrew McDonald (ed.), Australian War Memorial, Canberra, ACT, pp. 38-42.
Scott, G. R., 1996. The history of prostitution, Random House, London.
Stanley, P., 2005. Quinn's Post: Anzac, Gallipoli, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, England.
Waite, F., 1919. The New Zealanders at Gallipoli, Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd., Christchurch, New Zealand.
Watney, J., 1977. The Churchills: Portrait of a great family, Gordon and Cremonesi, The Anchor Press Ltd, Essex, England.
Wolff, L., 2003. In Flanders fields: The 1917 campaign, The Folio Society. London, England.
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, No 75(2).
Newspapers, Gazettes and Selected Articles
The Cairns Post, Cairns, Qld.
The Age, Melbourne, Vic.
The Advertiser, Adelaide, SA.
The London Gazette, London, UK.
The Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Sydney, NSW.
Commonwealth Gazette, No. 30 25 March 1920.
Commonwealth Gazette, Official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli, Bean C., No. 10, 21 January 1916, pp.147-148.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli, No. 3, 10 January 1916, pp. 35-38.
London Gazette: no. 25641, pp. 5385–5386, 9 November 1886.
The Age, 4 September 1915.
The Advertiser (Adelaide), Tuesday, 21 September 1915, The Australian in Battle; Further fighting of Gallipoli General Hamilton’s Official Dispatch; Dare-Devil Spirit of the Southerners; Splendid bravery and devotion to Duty p. 7.
The Advertiser (Adelaide), Tuesday, 4 September 1915, The gallant Australians: Magnificent tactics, p.15
John Robert Tracey Photographic Collection.
The Australian War Memorial Database.
*Should anyone be interested in further history of the Hynes or MacLellan families, please contact: email@example.com
 Dr Michael MacLellan Tracey BA (Hons) (ANU), PhD (ANU) holds a Doctorate in Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology from the Australian National University. His Grandmother, Margaret Anne Hynes (1878-1913), was the sister of John Thomas Hynes (1883-1928). She married Richard Alexander MacLellan who also served in the 15th Battalion AIF during WWI.
 Johnstone, T., 2009. 'Military heroes - Fact and fiction,' Sabretache, Vol. L, No 3, September, The Military History Society of Australia, Canberra, ACT, p. 10.
 Lowenthal, D., 1998. The heritage crusade and the spoils of history, Cambridge University Press, England, p.6.
 Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Queensland, District of Wide Bay, Colony of Queensland: B: 09173, 1871.
 Catherine C. (MacLellan) Tracey, Townsville, Queensland, pers. comm. 1981; Michael Hynes, Wahroonga, NSW, pers. comm. 2010; Michael is John T. Hynes’ nephew. His father was Patrick Hynes late of Edmonton near Cairns.
 Cairns Post, 11January 1911, p. 4; Queensland Electoral Roll, 1913, District of Kennedy, Subdivision of Cloncurry, No. 1211.
 Queensland Electoral Roll, 1908, Division of Kennedy, Subdivision of Charters Towers, No. 4305.
 John Robert Tracey Photographic Collection, H-JT001.
 Chataway, T. P., 1948. History of the 15th Battalion, Australian Imperial Forces; war 1914-1918, revised Paul Goldenstedt (ed.), William Brooks & Co., Brisbane, Qld.
 Australian Military Forces, Australian Imperial Force, Attestation Paper, 16 October 1914.
 Correspondence to M. Tracey, Australian Army, Central Army Records Office, 10 December 1982, (ref R707/1/7).
 This artefact of the 15th Battalion is held in the Tracey/MacLellan Family Collection. It reads: ‘Heartiest Greetings, Gallipoli, Egypt, France, Belgium, Australian Commonwealth Military Forces 1914 – 1918 15th Battalion, France Xmas 1918.’ Hynes’ ynes’ salutation reads: ‘From Capt. Jno Hynes to Kathleen, Jack, Bob, Mary, Teresa, wishing you a merry xmas & happy new year’. The persons mentioned on the card were Hynes’ nieces and nephews of the MacLellan family.
 Gilbert, M., 2000. Churchill; A life, Pimlico, London, England, pp. 299-300.
 Jeffery, K., 2010. MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service 1909-19I6, Bloomsbury, England.
 Broadbent, H., 2009. ‘Gallipoli’s first day; Turkish documents separating myth and reality’, Warfare, Andrew McDonald (ed), Australian War Memorial, Canberra, ACT, p. 44.
 Watney, J., 1977. The Churchills; Portrait of a great family, Gordon and Cremonesi, The Anchor Press Ltd, Essex, England, p.p. 122-123.
 Correspondence to Anne Hines [sic] from Captain J. M. Lean, Officer in Command Base Records, Victoria Barracks, Melbourne, 11 October 1915.
 Army Form W.3121, 4 Australian Brigade, 4th Division, 1st Anzac Corps, 14 September 1916.
 The Brisbane Courier, 14 December 1915, p.8; Wright returned to Charters Towers in December 1915 welcomed home by his fellow miners of the Brilliant Deeps Mine.
 London Gazette No. 6545, 3 July 1915.
 Stanley, P., 2005. Quinn's Post: Anzac, Gallipoli, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, England; Sydney Morning Herald, 28 July 1915, ‘Men of the Dardanelles – Major Hugh Quinn of Quinn’s Post’ p. 14.
 The Age, 4 September 1915.
 War Gratuity Schedule, Hynes John Thomas, Leiut. 154, “a” 15th Bt, entry 1/15/MEFO 38/6.
 Bean, C., 1924. The Story of Anzac; Official history of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, Vol. 2, Angus and Robertson, p.882.
 Watney, J., 1977. The Churchills; Portrait of a great family, Gordon and Cremonesi, The Anchor Press Ltd, Essex, England, pp 122-123;
 Third Supplement to the London Gazette, 10 April 1916.
 Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli, No. 3, 10 January 1916, pp. 35-38.
 Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli, C., No. 10, 21 January 1916, pp. 147-148; Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli, No. 3, 10 January 1916, pp. 35-38; London Gazette, 11 July 1919, Position 66, p. 883.
 Base Records Office A.I.F., No. 60892, 25 April, 1917; Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 62, 19 April 1917.
 George Urquhart was the son of the Maryborough [Scotland] sawmiller, Donald Urquhart.
 Australian Military Forces, Australian Imperial Force, Attestation Paper, (no 4727), 30 June 1915.
 Correspondence to M. Tracey 7 March 2010 from Ron Miller; Subject (Aus-Qld) George Urquhart – Charters Towers).
 Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Queensland, Register No.1949/3339.
 154. J.T. Hynes, Statement of Service.
 Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Position 17, 25 July 1917, p. 1543; London Gazette, Position 8, p. 1609, 25 July 1917; Correspondence to M. Tracey 10 December 1982, Australian Army, Central Army Records Office, Ref: R707/1/7, p. 2;
 Base Records Office A. I. F., 6 August 1917, No. 798.
 Australian Army, Central Army records Office, 10 December 1982, (ref R707/1/7), p. 1; John Robert Tracey Photographic Collection, H-JT008.
 Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, 25 July 1915, No. 11.
 Supplement to the London Gazette, 10 December 1919, p. 15293; Supplement to the London Gazette, 2 April 1919, p. 4318; Proclamation by King George V, 2 April 1919, AWM PRoo889.
 Army Form 3121; Base Records Office A.I.F., 1 April 1920; Second Supplement, Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, 25 March 1920, No. 31680.
 London Gazette: No. 25641, pp. 5385–5386, 9 November 1886.
 John Robert Tracey Photographic Collection, H-JT004.
 Commonwealth Gazette, No. 30, 25 March 1920.
 AWM, ID Number E03264. Unknown Official Australian Photographer.
 Federal Studios, Townville, 1919.
 Negative Number: P02311.001, AWM Database - Donor M. Fitzgerald.
 Correspondence from to M. Tracey from Australian Bicentennial Authority to, ref JFK:RM, 31 August 1987.
 Correspondence from L’ Ambassadeur Roger Duzer, Ambassade de France en Australie, 21 April 1988; Comité Francais Pour Le Bicentenaire De l’Australie, Press Release, Paris, France, 19 June 1987; The Australian Bicentennial Authority, Media Release, 7 September 1987.
 Electoral Roll, Subdivision of Cairns, 1921 /22, No. 2730; Electoral Roll, Subdivision of Herbert, Cairns, 1925, No. 3265; Electoral Roll, Subdivision of Herbert, Cairns, 1926, No.3697; Electoral Roll, Subdivision of Herbert, Cairns, 1928, No.2709.
 Electoral Roll, Subdivision of Boulia, 1919, No. 469.
 Lawrence, J., 2001. Pictorial History of Randwick, Kingsclear Books, Alexandria, pp. 11-17; Michael Lyons Hynes, Wahroonga, NSW, pers. comm., 2010.
 Michael Hynes pers. comm., Wahroonga, NSW.
 Registrar Births, Death and Marriages, NSW: Death Certificate No 1928/012726, 13 Feb 2010; Form 1. 1238, Syphilis case-sheet, 4315, Lt Hynes, 15th Btn, 28-12-17.
 Army War Gratuity Schedule, Hynes John Thomas, Leiut. 154, “a” 15th Bt, entry 21/12/17.
 Siena, K, P., 2001. ‘The ‘foul disease’ and privacy: the effects of venereal disease and patient demand on the medical marketplace in early modern London’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, No 75(2), pp.199-224.
 Neefs, H., 2004. ‘The introduction of diagnostic and treatment innovations for syphilis in postwar VD policy’, Dynamis, Medical and Science History, No 24, pp. 93-118; Brandt, A, M., 1985. No magic bullet: a social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880, New York, Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 11.
 Scott, G. R., 1996. The history of prostitution, Random House, London, p. 19.
 Brighton, T., 2008. Masters of Battle; Monty, Patton and Rommel at war, Penguin Books, London, p. 61.
 The author served in the Royal Australian Engineers from 1966-1968. While at recruit training at 1 RTB, Kapooka, NSW such parades were conducted, comments re prostitution and adultery were delivered and condoms provided.
 Correspondence to J. Lambert Tracey from Kerrie Alexander, 19 February 2010.
 Registrar of Births, Death and Marriages, NSW: Death Certificate No 1928/012726, 13 Feb 2010; Rookwood Report, 1 March 2010, Michael Rochford Hynes, Register No. 6391, Sec.M1-3lot10 X 15.
 The Cairns Post, 20 October 1917, p. 4.
'154 Captain John Thomas Hynes, DSO, MM, Cross of Karageorge with Swords (Serbia) - An Australian Soldier.'
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